Siwa is an Egyptian city and oasis in Western desert. Administrative area of Matruh Governorate. The wells and springs used for irrigation, drinking, natural water filling and treatment are located in the area. There are four major lakes. Several archaeological sites discovered, such as the Temple of Amuon, which witnesses the phenomenon of spring equinox twice a year, and the Tomb of the dead mountain, it covers an area of 7800 km, which includes several types of animal and plant life forms. The oasis is home to nearly 35,000 people, most of whom work in agriculture or tourism. The desert continental climate is oasis, it is very hot in summer, but its winter is very cold during the night.
Most Important Tourist and Natural Areas:
Despite the location of the oasis in the middle of the desert, the freshwater springs spread throughout the region with a large number of wells and springs, up to 200 springs, of which 190 thousand cubic meters of water flow every day for irrigation, drinking, natural water and treatment. Water volume is different from one well to another. Some of the springs water is hot, others cold, also sweet and salty, In addition to the sulfur springs, and those springs Ain Tagzart, Ain Dakrur, Ain Qureisht, Ain Hammam, Ain Tamoush, Ain Khamisa, Ain Aljerba, Ain Shifa, Ain Mashtand, the most famous springs:
Siwa’s most famous tourist attraction, also known as Ain Juba or Ain Shams, is a stone bath filled with natural hot spring water. Some people claimed this spring named after the Egyptian queen swam in it during her visit to Siwa.
It is about 6 km west of Siwa, located on Fattanas Island overlooking the salt lake and surrounded by palm trees and desert landscapes.
Also called the “Great Sand Sea Well”, a hot spring 10 km from the oasis near the Libyan border in the heart of the Great Sand Sea.
Ein Kigar is most popular hot therapeutic water spring, its water used for the therapeutic purposes of rheumatic, with a temperature of 67 C and containing several minerals and sulfur.
There are four main lakes in Siwa, Zaytoon (olive) lake east of Siwa, Aghurmi or the modern lake north-east of the oasis, Siwa lake west of Shale city, and l Al-Maraqi lake west of Bahi Elddin oasis. The oasis includes several lakes, including Taghaghin Lake, Middle Lake, and Shayata Lake. Lake Fatanas is a tourist attraction site located 5 km west of Siwa.
Divided into three sectors: east sector, west sector, and south central sector. The region is classified as a natural reserve with its rich biological diversity and natural and cultural heritage, where many mammals, reptiles, birds, invertebrates and insects, such as the endangered eagle, the Phoenician fox, the chital, the endangered cats and the common species of birds such as the bath Migratory birds, as well as flora life.
Mountain of the Dead:
Is a mountain that includes a collection of archaeological tombs dating back to the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., which reused during the Greco-Roman era. The mountain is about 2 km from Siwa, and the graves discovered because of the Siwa people fleeing to the mountain during World War II raids. It consists of limestone soil and is an ancient cemetery. This mountain characterized by its wondrous view from below to the tombs of the dead sculpted in the form of a stone bee cell in the form of regular rows and successive geometrically shaped like the old oasis.
It is a set of contiguous hills. The mountain is located 3 km south of Siwa Oasis, with two peaks called “Nadra and Nasarh”. At the top of Nasarh there is a grotto carved in the rock called “Tnshur”, monument called “House of Sultan” located below it made of clean limestone. The mountain is famous for its hot sand with medicinal properties, it contains the red dye used in the manufacture of the clay pots. During the summer, Egyptians and foreigners flock to the mountain to enjoy hot sand baths that are capable of treating rheumatic diseases, joint pain, spine and skin diseases.
Temple of Amun:
The temple of Amun, also known as the Temple of Revelation, the Temple of Predictions, or the Temple of Alexander, is one of the most important monuments in the Siwa oasis. Established in the Pharaonic era to spread the Amun religion among the tribes and neighboring peoples due to the location of Siwa as a junction of commercial roads between the south, north, west and east. The temple is located 4 km east of the city of Siwa, and was famous for visiting the Macedonian leader Alexander the Great after opening Egypt in 331 BC. The temple witnesses an astronomical phenomenon called the spring equinox where the solar disk perpendicular to the temple twice a year, on March 20 or 21, the date of the spring equinox, and September 22 or 23, the date of autumnal equinox. The phenomenon observed only day of the year, of the shortest day of the year, and 90 days later, the longest day of the year.
The city of Shale dates back to the year 1203. Its name means the city in the Siwa language, and the city had only one door for defenses reassuring purpose. A second door made on the south side called “Atrat” meaning the new door. Used for those people who prefer to avoid passing in front families chiefs. Only people of Siwa were aware of this door, they used it secretly escape out of Siwa when it is under siege. Due Siwa Conservative society, they prevents mixing women and men therefore the made a third door for women called “Qadouha”. Women only allowed using this door if they have to exit. In the construction of the town houses, the clay crater extracted from the soil saturated with salt, because when it dries it becomes cement-like in its hardness.
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